Saturday, February 2, 2013



Animal You | Dugong | The word "dugong" derives from the Tagalog term dugong which in turn was taken from the Malaysian Duyung, or "lady of the sea" meaning. Other common names are local "manatee", "pig of the sea" and "sea camel". Dugong dugon is the only species of the family Dugongidae existing, and one of four living species of the order Sirenia, the other to the family of manatees form for the first time sorted by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon, a member of the Manatee like this before by Linnaeus . The Steller's sea cow died in the 18th century. Molecular studies have been conducted in populations of dugongs using the mitochondrial DNA. The results suggest that the population of South-East Asia is different from others. Australia has two maternal lines, which also includes dugongs in Africa and Arabia. Dugongs can be found in warm coastal waters of the North Pacific Ocean, on the east coast of Africa, more than 140,000 kilometers (86,992 miles) of coastline between 26 ° and 27 ° degrees north and south of Ecuador.

The Dugong is the only mammal herbivore narrow-marine, as all species of manatee use fresh water to a certain extent. The numbers of dugongs is generally believed that the actual number that the lack of precise studies. However, the population of dugongs due to take off, with a total reduction of 20 percent in the last 90 years. The dugong populations exist in water from 37 countries and territories. At the end of 1960, 500 farms dugongs were observed on the coast of East Africa and the neighboring islands. The eastern side of the Red Sea is home to large populations numbering in the hundreds, and similar populations are deemed to exist on the west side. In 1980, it is estimated that there could be up to 4,000 dugongs in the Red Sea. The Persian Gulf is the second largest population of dugongs in the world, who live most of the south coast and the current population is estimated at about 7,500.

A very isolated breeding population exists in the Gulf of Kutch, the only remaining population in western India. It is 1,500 kilometers (932 miles) of the population in the Persian Gulf, and 1,700 kilometers (1,056 miles) from the nearest town in India. A small population exists around Nansei Shoto Islands, and a population that previously existed outside of Taiwan. A population to extinction of 50 or less dugongs survives around Okinawa. A small existing population from southern China, the island of Hainan. Dugongs are believed to be in the Straits of Johor exist in very small quantities. The waters around Borneo to maintain a small population, with more scattered across the Malay archipelago. Populations anywhere in the archipelago of the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, which extends to a Western population of Vanuatu. A very isolated population lives near the islands of Palau. Australia is home to the largest population, which extends from Shark Bay in Western Australia to Moreton Bay in Queensland. Shark Bay population is considered stable, with more than 10,000 manatees. Small populations exist coast, including one in Ashmore Reef. A large number of dugongs live in the north of the Northern Territory, with a population of more than 20,000 in the Gulf of Carpentaria only. A The Great Barrier Reef provides important foraging areas for this species of reef area has a resident population of around 10,000, even if the concentration of the population has changed over time. Bays to the north, to the coast of Queensland provide an important habitat for manatees, the southernmost of which Hervey Bay and Moreton Bay.

Dugongs are usually found in warm waters along the coast with many concentrated in protected bays wide and shallow. A large number also in the mangrove channels and around large, shallow downwind of large offshore islands in seagrass beds are common. Dugongs have a long life, and the oldest recorded specimen reached 73 years. A large number of infections and parasitic diseases of manatees. 30% of the dead dugong in Queensland since 1996 is likely due to the disease. Meetings of hundreds of dugongs sometimes happens, but only last for a short period of time. Because they are shy and do not approach people, little is known about dugong behavior. Dugongs are semi-nomadic, often traveling long distances in search of food, but stay within a certain range of his life. Dugong movements primarily occur within a localized area of algae and animals of the same region show patterns of movement individualistic. In areas where there is a large tidal range, dugongs travel with the tide in shallow water feeding opening. In Moreton Bay, dugongs often travel between feeding areas within the bay and the ocean water warm. At higher latitudes dugongs make seasonal swings to reach the warmer waters in the winter. Occasionally dugongs make long-distance travel for many days, and can travel through the deep waters of the ocean.

Manatees, along with other sirenians, are known as "sea cows" because their diet consists mainly of seaweed. A wide variety of algae in dugong stomach contents, and there is evidence that feed on algae when seagrass is scarce. Although almost completely herbivorous, sometimes eat invertebrates, such as jellyfish, sea eggs and the sea. Dugong in Moreton Bay, Australia, are omnivores and feed on invertebrates such as worms, algae and grasslands range reduces your choice. In other parts of South-East Asia and Western Australia, there is evidence that dugongs actively seek large invertebrates. This does not apply to dugongs in tropical areas, fecal test that invertebrates do not eat. Most dugongs not nourish lush areas, but where algae is poor. In the Great Barrier Reef, manatees feed low in fiber seagrass high nitrogen content, such as Halophila and Halodule, maximizing nutrient intake instead of the food mass. Seagrasses are only suitable for consumption by a dugong certain specialized diet of dugong. There is evidence that dugongs composition of marine species active at the local level to change. Dugongs can search more algae. Supply routes observed as deep as 33 meters (108 feet), and dugongs are seen feeding as deep as 37 meters (121 feet). Dugongs are relatively slow moving, swimming at about 10 km / h (6.2 mph).

Due to their poor eyesight, dugongs often use smell to find food plants. A Dugong reaches sexual maturity at the age of eight and eighteen, in most other mammals. There is evidence that the loss of dugongs male fertility in old age. Mating behavior varies between populations in different areas. In some populations, males establish a territory that women in estrus to visit. Females give birth after a gestation period of 13-15 months, usually to a single calf. Birth takes place in very shallow water, with known cases in which mothers were almost on the shore. A mother calf late once it has matured. It is often considered as the inspiration for the sirens and people of all cultures around the world developed dugong hunting. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, dugongs were often exhibited in wunderkammer. Dugong meat and oil traditionally one of the most valuable food of Indigenous Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. Some Aborigines believe dugongs as part of his native. Dugongs have also played a role in the legends in Kenya, and the animal is known locally as the "Queen of the Sea." In the Gulf States, dugongs served not only as a source of food, but the teeth were used as handles sword. Dugong oil is important to the Indian people and their meat is believed to be an aphrodisiac. Dugong ribs were used to create images in Japan. In southern China, manatees, traditionally considered a "miracle fish", and was unlucky to catch them. However, a wave of immigration beginning in the late 1950s resulted in dugongs are hunted for food. In parts of Thailand believes that the dugong tears are a powerful aphrodisiac, while in some parts of Indonesia are considered reincarnations of women.

Despite being protected by law in many countries, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include hunting, habitat degradation and fishing deaths. Most problems occur industrial fishing in deeper waters where dugong populations are low, with the local fishing is the main risk factor in shallow water. As dugongs can not stay underwater for a very long time, very sensitive to deaths from entanglement. In areas such as northern Australia, hunting remains the greatest impact on the population of manatees. Strikes the ship have shown a problem for manatees, but its importance for dugongs is unknown. Increasing ship traffic is an increased danger, especially in shallow water. It is seen that the problems of Hainan, due to the practice of modern agriculture and the cause of increasing environmental degradation also remove hit, and much of the coast of the dugong habitat in the process of industrialization, increasing human populations. Dugongs heavy metal ions accumulate in their tissues throughout their lives, more than other marine mammals. Socio-political needs are a barrier for dugong conservation in many countries in the developing world. Oil spills are a threat to dugongs in some areas, such as land reclamation. In the Okinawa dugong small population is threatened by the military of the United States. The capture of animals in research has only one or two deaths, but dugongs are expensive to maintain in captivity, because mothers and calves spend a lot of time together, and the inability to grow the seagrass that dugongs eat in an aquarium. Worldwide, only five dugongs in captivity. A man named Junichi also lived until his death February 10, 2011.
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