Saturday, January 26, 2013

Spotted Hyena


Animal You | Spotted Hyena | Taxonomic confusion is the exact nature of the hyena family, in general, with the majority of European travelers in Ethiopia hyenas as "wolves". This stems in part from the Amharic word for hyena ጅብ (djibb), which comes from the Arabic word ذئب (Dhi'b), the "wolf" is derived. The first detailed descriptions of the first hand of Europeans coming Willem Bosman spotted hyena and piston Pedro. Piston, a German mathematician and astronomer who worked for the Dutch East India Company in the Eastern Cape of Good Hope 1705-1713, hyenas described in detail, but describes it as "Tiger Wolf" because the settlers in South Africa does not they did, hyenas, and so-called "wolves". Crocuta was finally recognized as a separate species in 1828 hyena. Nlike striped hyena, which have been proposed for a number of sub-species, in light of the modern sector, the spotted hyena is a very variable species, both temporally and spatially.

When fossil fuels are taken into account, the species have a greater variation than is the case at present, and provided a number of these species fossil classified as synonymous Crocuta crocuta, with evidence that in most of a type genus Crocuta lack both Bjorn Kurten and Camille Arambourg Asian promoted the species; Kuerten focused their arguments on taxon sivalensis Plio-Pleistocene Crocuta defended Arambourg Siwaliks of view, but has admitted the possibility of an Indo-Ethiopian. This position has been challenged by Ficarelli and Torre made the reference to the detection of the presence of spotted hyenas in Africa deposists early Pleistocene age sivalensis similar to C. Asia. The first increase of the hyenas from Africa to Eurasia began less than 3.5 million years ago, probably in the area where the first fossils were found in spotted hyenas, reached Southeast Asia and probably Pakistan. The second migration occurred spotted hyenas least 1.3 to 1.5 million years ago and led to the first arrival of hyenas in Europe and a separation of the African spotted hyena in southern and a northern. The third migration was spotted hyenas after 0360000 years to reach the North African population, both in Europe and in Asia. 

The ancestors of the genus Crocuta Hyena target (the type of striped and brown hyenas) 10 million years ago, the ancestors of spotted hyenas probably developed social behaviors in response to growing pressure from other predators on the bodies, what that forced them to work as a team. At some point in its evolution spotted hyena developed sharp fangs behind their crushing premolars, this was waiting for their prey to die and not a necessity, as in the case of brown and striped hyenas, and thus became hunters load and scavengers. Since no evidence of changes in the environment is responsible, it is likely that the giant short-faced hyena became extinct due to competition with hyenas. The spotted hyena has a strong neck and well developed and underdeveloped area, front and rear, but relatively. In contrast to the striped hyena hyenas pointed ears are rounded instead. Unusually among hyaenids and mammals in general, the female spotted hyena is much larger than the males.

The spotted hyena has a big heart in proportion, almost 1% of body weight, resistance in both long persecution. Eurasian populations differ extinct now modern African populations of their distal humerus shorter and longer and femur. The hyena skull differs from that of the striped hyena by its much larger size and closer to the sagittal crest. For its size, the spotted hyena has one of the strongest in the skull of predators. With a third port oxo-cone lower fourth premolar The spotted hyena also has his fangs behind his bones break premolars, the position of the bones with their crushing premolars tusks can not flatten. Protect in combination with large jaw muscles and a special vaulting against large skull forces, these properties spotted hyenas powerful bite, the (11,400 lbf / in ²), a pressure of 800 kgf/cm2 to exercise, strength 40 % can result in a leopard compared. The jaws of spotted hyenas exceeding grizzlies bonecrushing observed in wild hyenas capacity and the long bones of giraffes measuring 7 cm in diameter to break.

The hyena is a nonseasonal breeder, if a birth peak during the rainy season. How many cat species are pair bonds of hyenas promiscuous and are not permanent. Males show submissive behavior when approaching women in the heat, even if the man on your partner. Women often prefer younger men born or. Passive Men tend to be more successful in wooing women are so aggressive. The pairing of spotted hyenas is a relatively short, which exists mainly at night without hyenas. In late pregnancy provide dominant female offspring develop higher levels of androgens lower-ranking mothers. The highest concentrations of androgens, which are responsible for the high concentrations of ovarian androstenedione for extreme masculinization of female behavior and morphology. This has the effect that the dominant female boys sexually aggressive and active ranges below the hyenas, male senior boys try to mount females opposite sons classification. Birth is difficult because females give birth through their narrow clitoris hyenas guys are the greatest of respect carnivoran young. Puppies are born with soft hair, black brown and a weight of 1.5 kg on average. Unique among carnivorous mammals, spotted hyenas are even with eyes open and with 6-7 mm long canines and incisors born 4 mm in length. This siblicide neonatal kills about 25% of hyenas in the first month. Mothers do not regurgitate food for their young. Puppies begin to lose hair and develop black spotted fur is lighter colored than adults 2-3 months. Spotted hyenas reach sexual maturity at the age of three years. Compared with other hyenas, hyenas display greater relative amount of the frontal cortex, is involved in mediating the social behavior. Studies suggest that convergent evolution in spotted hyena and primate intelligence. A study of evolutionary anthropologists demonstrated fact that chimpanzees outweigh the hyenas to solve the problem of detection; pairs of captive hyenas asked to draw two ropes in unison to earn a food reward, successful cooperation and learning maneuvers quickly without prior training. Experts hyenas even helped fellow clan without experience to solve the problem.

The intelligence of hyenas is 19 Century Dutch settlers in South Africa, the hyenas were extremely cunning and suspicious, as noted, especially after the success of the drain traps. Spotted hyenas seem intended to hunt certain species before, hyenas observed that activities such as scent marking before. Zebras, behavior that if you enjoy hunting other prey in turn produces spotted hyenas have also conspired to use fraudulent conduct, including alarm calls during feeding, if there are no enemies, hyenas scare others and allowing them to eat temporarily at peace. Similarly, mothers emit alarm calls in an attempt to stop attacks against other hyena cubs.
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